In this, her second book, Theresa Urbainczyk demonstrates how one collection of saints' lives—the Religious History of Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus—both prescribes and describes the relationship between ascetics and the early church. Theodoret’s depiction of Galenic doctors in the Religious History … [12][13], Two works, On the Holy and Life-giving Trinity and On the Incarnation of the Lord, have survived through ascription to his opponent Cyril of Alexandria.[12][14][15]. ", "Bilingualism and Diglossia in Late Antique Syria and Mesopotamia", Greek Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Graeca, with analytical indexes and concordances made on the whole writings, István Pásztori-Kupán: Theodoret of Cyrus’s Double Treatise On the Trinity and On the Incarnation: The Antiochene Pathway to Chalcedon (PhD thesis), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theodoret&oldid=994527194, Ancient Christians involved in controversies, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Translations of some of Theodoret's writings can be found in, RC Hill has published translations into English of the, Bilingual editions (Greek text with parallel French translation) of several of the texts mentioned above have been published in recent years in, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 04:46. 439). After Chalcedon, he lived in Cyrrhus until his death, which may have been in 460.[10][11]. ", "John Chrysostom to Theodoret of Cyrrhus", "Theodoret of Cyrrhus: A Syrian in Greek Dress? Theodoret stands out prominently in the Christological controversies aroused by Cyril of Alexandria. Theodoret likes to choose the best among various interpretations before him, preferably Theodore's, and supplements from his own. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series. In the final two chapters (XXIX and XXX), he records the lives of three women: NULL and Cyra (XXIX) and NULL (XXX). The man united to God was born of Mary; between God the Logos and the form of a servant a distinction must be drawn. His aim is to avoid a one-sidedness of literalness as well as of allegory. Of the twenty-seven orations in defence of various propositions, the first six agree in their given content with Theodoret. Translated by Blomfield Jackson. Seen as a set of religious traditions, Hellenism was incompatible with Christianity, and Theodoret argued vigorously against it. Theodoret was born at Antioch towards the close of the fourth century and died at Cyrus, or Cyrrhus, the capital of the Syrian province of Cyrrhestica, in 457. To the same belong chapters xiii-xv, xvii, and brief parts of other chapters of the fragments which, Baur, Chrysostom. Irenaeus the friend of Nestorius, with the cooperation of Theodoret, became bishop of Tyre, in spite of the protests of Dioscorus, Cyril's successor, who now turned specially against Theodoret; and secured the order from the court confining Theodoret to Cyrrhus. He was first to take part only as accuser, yet among the bishops. Another surviving work is the Expositio rectae fidei. To the persecuted Christians of Persian Armenia he sent letters of encouragement, and to the Carthaginian Celestiacus, who had fled the rule of the Vandals, he gave refuge. attention, however, has been paid to Theodoret’s own literary efforts to fashion his ascetics into the founders of new ascetic cities. Theodoret was born, probably in 393, of a well-to-do, though not aristocratic, Antiochene family. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. A chronology of the composition of these works can be developed by studying references in the latter works to the earlier works. The Ecclesiastical History Of Theodoret by Theodoret (Author) 2.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. Saint Theodoret, known as Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus, (c. 393 – c. 457) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria (423-457). De providentia, or Ten Discourses on Providence, consists of apologetic discourses, proving the divine providence from the physical order (chapters i-iv), and from the moral and social order (chapters vi-x). Unlike most sermons, they are reasoned arguments, lectures rather than homilies on scriptural texts. Valuable though not binding is the exegetical tradition of the ecclesiastical teachers. 179 letters were edited by J Sirmond in the seventeenth century. (To help fight spam, this address might change occasionally.) Next that on the Psalms was completed before 436; and those on Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Pauline Epistles (including Hebrews), before 448. Theodoret's sources are in dispute. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a … Design of the History. trans. CHAPTER I. Saint Theodoret, known as Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus, ( Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria (423-457). The Religious History, with an appendix on divine love, contains the biographies of thirty (ten living) ascetics, held forth as religious models. His writings against Cyril were included in the Three Chapters Controversy and were condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople. Featuring the Church Fathers, Catholic Encyclopedia, Summa Theologica and more. He may have prepared the Antiochian symbol which was to secure the emperor's true understanding of the Nicene Creed, and he was a member and spokesman of the deputation of eight from Antioch called by the emperor to Chalce… After the death of Cyril, adherents of the Antiochian theology were appointed to bishoprics. Instead of a "union according to hypostases," he would accept only one that "manifests the essential properties or modes of the natures." Epist. Theodoret, the Church historian says he was consecrated bishop by St. Peter, who was at first bishop of Antioch before going to Rome. : from the twentieth year of Constantine down to the reign of Leo I, in whose reign he died.” 104. [6] When he was twenty-three years old and both parents were dead, he divided his fortune among the poor (Epist. Eventually, Theodoret's birth was promised by a hermit named Macedonius the Barley-Eater on the condition of his dedication to God, whence the name Theodoret ("gift of God").[4]. CHAPTER IV. Toward 453 Theodoret composed a Haereticarum fabularum compendium, a synopsis of all heresies down to Eutyches, describing in excellent brevity the variations of error with orthodox doctrine. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. 393 – c. 457 AD) was an influential author, theologian, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). Even a cursory look into Theodoret’s writings suffices to show that his engagement with Hellenism—understood as both a set of religious traditions and cultural and literary expressions—lasted throughout his life. To the condemnation of Nestorius he could not assent. His Ecclesiastical History takes a strong apologetic and anti-heretical (mainly anti-Arian) tone. Upon the request of a high official named Sporacius, Theodoret compiled a Compendium of Heretical Accounts (Haereticarum fabularum compendium), including a heresiology (books i-iv) and a "compendium of divine dogmas" (book v), which, apart from Origen's De principiis and the theological work of John of Damascus, is the only systematic representation of the theology of the Greek Fathers. The divine illumination affords the right understanding after the apostolic suggestion and the New Testament fulfilment. His conduct shows (though hindered from a statement to that effect) that he performed this with his previous reservation; namely, without application beyond the teaching of two sons in Christ and the denial of the theotokos. He is clear and simple in thought and statement; and his merit is to have rescued the exegetical heritage of the school of Antioch as a whole for the Christian Church. Even Domnus gave his assent. (. Theodoret's last exegetical works were the interpretations of difficult passages in the Octateuch and Quaestiones dealing with the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, written about 452 to 453. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) In the 440s, motivated as much by theological concerns as by the need to situate Syrian ascetics in a spiritual context, Theodoret wrote the Religious History (or History of the Monks of Syria), a series of portraits of Syrian ascetics. (2) The Religious History, φιλόθεος ἱστορία, is devoted to the lives of 30 celebrated hermits and ascetics, his contemporaries, and was written from personal knowledge and popular report before his Ecclesiastical History. "A Chapter in Byzantine Epistolography the Letters of Theodoret of Cyrus", "Qui est 'le Syrien' dans les commentaries de Théodoret de Cyr? For the martyr, see, This evidence is assumed because, when later deprived of his see, he begs permission to return to this monastery, explaining it is 75 miles from Antioch and 20 miles from his episcopal city. Chapter 11, “Theodoret in the Religious History ” (130-142), takes on the hagiographical aspect of Theodoret’s presentation of his own life in the Religious History. [22] 36 letters have been preserved in conciliar records. [28] Theodoret′s regional (provincial) differentiation of Aramaic dialects included an explicit distinction between the "Syrians" (as Aramaic speakers of Syria proper, western of Euphrates), and the "Osroenians" as Aramaic speakers of Osroene (eastern region, centered in Edessa), thus showing that dialect of the "Syrians" (Aramaic speakers of proper Syria) was known to have somewhat different pronunciation from that of the "Osroenians" (speakers of Edessan Aramaic). He converted more than 1,000 Marcionites in his diocese,[8] besides many Arians and Macedonians;[9] more than 200 copies of Tatian's Diatessaron he retired from the churches; and he erected churches and supplied them with relics. Upon this he was declared orthodox and rehabilitated. . The obvious parallel that comes to mind from this same period is Eudocia. [83] Theodoret was not alone in deliberately fusing classical literary ideals with Christian ones. - Is the Question Open or Closed? Origin of the Arian Heresy. Theodoret, supported only by the appeals of the intimate hermits, himself in personal danger, zealously guarded purity of the doctrine. Theodoret now composed the Eranistes (see below). In principle his exegesis is grammatical-historical; and he criticizes the intrusion of the author's own ideas. The actual evidence given to us by Theodoret suggests that his education was exclusively religious. The court excluded Theodoret from the Second Council of Ephesus in 449 because of his antagonism to Cyril. The Epistle of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria to Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople. This work is distinguished for clearness of arrangement and style.[21]. Theodoret of Cyrrhus, a key player in the political and theological controversies between Alexandria and Antioch in the fifth-century CE, produced massive amounts of literature. zachary the rhetor cites a History of Chalcedon as written by Theodoret, but there is no trace of it; and the Libellus contra Nestorium ad Sporacium is not his. His philanthropic and economic interests were extensive and varied: he endeavoured to secure relief for the people oppressed with taxation; he divided his inheritance among the poor; from his episcopal revenues he erected baths, bridges, halls, and aqueducts; he summoned rhetoricians and physicians, and reminded the officials of their duties. [772] Julianus Sabas (i.e. "To his most revered and likeminded brother Alexander, Alexander sendeth greeting in the Lord. My email address is feedback732 at newadvent.org. ISBN. [5] In his letters he quotes from Homer, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes and Thucydides. Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). Derek Krueger has noted the importance of imitation and Biblical precedents in the Religious History and its deep connections to Theodoret’s own life (Krueger 2004). PROLOGUE. ISBN-10: 1419160559. With Diodorus and Theodore he was no less hated by the Miaphysites than Nestorius himself, and held by them and their friends as a heretic. Encouraged by the fact that his mother had been cured of a serious eye complaint and converted to a sober life by Peter the Galatian, an ascetic living in an unoccupied in the locality,[3] Theodoret's parents sought further help from the local holy men, since she had been childless for twelve years. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. He clearly, also, though, received an extensive classical education, unsurprisingly for the child of prosperous parents in a city which had long been a centre of secular learning and culture. He is the second of the saints of Theodoret's "Religious History," where we read that he lived on millet bread, which he ate once a week, and performed various miracles, which are recorded by Theodoret on the authority of Acacius. It excites our wonder at what Dr. Newman calls the "easy credence, or as moderns would say large credulousness," which appears more … He is considered blessed by the Eastern Orthodox Church. The writing of a saint's life can be as political as it is pious. Another surviving work by Theodoret is his Refutation of the Anathemas, his rejection of the twelve anathemas pronounced on him by Cyril of Alexandria, which has been preserved in Cyril's defence. Theodoret, the most religious bishop, came up into the midst and said: `I have offered petitions to the most godlike, most religious and Christ-loving masters of the world, and I have related the disasters which have befallen me, and I claim that they shall be read.' Rather is it to be said that the Scripture speaks often "figuratively" and "in riddles." [16] He detects Apollinarianism in Cyril's teaching, and declines a "contracting into one" of two natures of the only begotten, as much as a separation into two sons (Epist. ", "What was Theodoret's Mother Tongue? The most significant works of Theodoret are those of exegesis. Aware of regional diversities of Aramaic dialects, he recorded that "the Osroënians, the Syrians, the people of the Euphrates, the Palestinians, and the Phoenicians all speak Syriac, but with many differences in pronunciation". Cxliii). However, Theodoret supplied numerous additional details from unknown sources. He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to … Theodoret received an extensive religious and secular education. Other articles where Ecclesiastical History is discussed: patristic literature: The school of Antioch: …apologies against paganism, and his Ecclesiastical History, continuing Eusebius’s work down to 428. The text dates to either 440 or 444. Original material of Antiochian information appears chiefly in the latter books. Without excluding other potential motives behind the writing of the Religious History, this one has received the least attention. Theodoret was compelled to leave Cyrrhus and retire to his monastery at Apamea. 250-348). He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. Among apologetic writings was the Ad quaestiones magorum (429-436), now lost, in which Theodoret justified the Old Testament sacrifices as alternatives in opposition to the Egyptian idolatry,[20] and exposed the fables of the Magi who worshipped the elements (Church History v. 38). List of the principal Bishops. Theodoret’s Religious History recounts the biographies of approximately 30 monks living in Northern Syria in the 4th and 5th centuries. The commentary on the Song of Songs, written while he was a young bishop, though not before 430, precedes Psalms; the commentaries on the prophets were begun with Daniel, followed by Ezekiel, and then the Minor Prophets. The Circumstances of Writing the religious history 102 Theodoret and the Monastic Legislation of chalcedon 105 Monasticism and the Church according to Theodoret 105 The Legislation of Chalcedon 108 The Historical Context 109 The Meaning 110 The Import 111 GeneraL concLusion 116 i. first section: The history of Monasticism in northern syria Then he was constrained (October 26, 451) by the friends of Dioscurus to pronounce the anathema over Nestorius. These letters provide glimpses of rural Christianity in northern Syria, as well as insight into episcopal relationships; hints of the development of Christological issues between the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon can be seen; there are letters of consolation and commendation; throughout there is revealed the generous and sensitive soul of a pastor. He thus illustrates that the overcoming of the Galenic paradigm is also proof that the holy men surpass the work of magicians. Theodoret, the most reverend bishop, passed into the midst, and said: "I have made my petition to the most divine and religious Emperor, and I have laid documents before the most reverend bishops occupying the place of the most sacred Archbishop Leo; and if you think fit, they shall be read to you, and you will know what I think.' His writings were encyclopaedic in range, but the most memorable perhaps are his Remedy for Greek Maladies, the last of ancient apologies against paganism, and his Ecclesiastical History, continuing Eusebius’s work down… Not familiar with Hebrew, Theodoret uses the Syriac translation, the Greek versions, and the Septuagint. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. For years their hopes were fed but not fulfilled. N. Glubokovskij counts Eusebius, Rufinus, Philostorgius, and, perhaps, Sabinus. In vain were his efforts at court at self-justification against the charges of Dioscurus, as well as the countercharge of Domnus against Eutyches of Apollinarism. Three collections survive, though there is some overlap between them. He played a pivotal role in many early Byzantine church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. Theodoret mentions having written against Arius and Eunomius,[19] probably one work, to which were joined the three treatises against the Macedonians. In the Old Testament everything has typological significance and prophetically it embodies already the Christian doctrine. 16) of Theodoret's defence of Diodorus and Theodore (438-444) have been preserved.[18]. Excepting the commentary on Isaiah (fragments preserved in the catenae) and on Galatians ii.6-13, the exegetical writings of Theodoret are extant. The following facts about his life are gleaned mainly from his Epistles and his Religious History (Philotheos historia). 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